Part B! Looking at techniques game developers use to control the players experience within a game.
Blog Post Week 8-9 Post B
How Video Games Immerse a player
Since the days of Metroid and Mario, video games have been immersing players within new worlds. Some, such as Elex (Elex, 2018) and World of Warcraft (World of Warcraft, 2018), replaced reality, creating an entirely new universe for the player to experience. Others, such as Legendary (Legendary, 2018) and Call of Duty (Call of Duty, 2018) sought to build upon this universe that we already have.
An avid reader as a child, I had long been used to escaping reality when I first discovered gaming, in the form of Jak 3 (Jak 3, 2018) on PlayStation 2. However, here was a form of story I had never experienced; one that I could interact people. And it is this interaction that is at the heart of game immersion. This week, I am going to explore 3 facets of this interaction that I feel most contribute to gameplay immersion.
Interactive, or branching, stories did not start with game development. Instead, there were a certain form of book called “choose your own adventure”. “If you want to head down into the dungeon, turn to page 385, if you want to head up to the turret, turn to 923”. While fairly clunky, these books were an amazing way to experience choice within a story-based context.
While one of the first interactive stories in gaming was almost certainly the first Fallout (Fallout, 2018) game, two of the most prominent examples are the Dragon Age (Electronic Arts, 2018), and the Mass Effect (Electronic Arts, 2018) series, notably developed by the same studio: BioWare. These games allowed the player to choose from multiple paths to develop the personality of their character, with the Mass Effect using the widely known “Paragon” system. The “Paragon” system was an attempt to condense morality into a single statistic, which is not a new feature. Good vs Evil. Right vs Wrong. Paragon vs Renegade. As the player made the appropriate choices, they would move their moral slider toward one side or the other. Whichever the choice, the player was rewarded and punished the most for committing the most. Pure paragon gave the player much less monetary reward, but more companion based skills, whilst renegades took the money. This was a single instance of meaningful choice in games!
Another element that these games excelled at was their development of supporting characters. Both Dragon Age and Mass Effect had broad choices of companions, roughly fifteen (15) for each game. Companions would react differently to your choices, and if you weren’t careful they would desert you altogether. The opposite was true, to a startling degree, giving BioWare games a somewhat raunchier reputation. Thus was the player surrounded by elements pulling them into the game. Befriending, outfitting and adventuring with a well written companion character is one of the most enjoyable gaming experiences, one promoting empathy and teamwork.
But what tools are we using to consume these games? From arcade machines and Pinball, to CRT monitors and Tetris (Tetris, 2018), to a 44” flat screen and Fallout 4 (Fallout 4, 2018). Each of these affected our experience. Racing games become ever more immersive once a steering controller is placed in front of the player, flight simulators become engaging with a full joystick, and Sing Star pretty much blew our minds with its controllers. This has taken a leap since 2016 with the introduction of VR into the public eye. Slowly becoming more prominent, Virtual Reality (VR) allows us to experience a total overlay of sight, hearing and the vestibular system (balance). At the most basic, these allow the player to “look” around inside a virtual world, but they also create new interaction methods such as Gaze and 3D gestures. Evolutions of this technology such as the Windows Mixed Reality ("Windows Mixed Reality headsets", 2018) headset, and the Vive Focus ("VIVE Focus", 2018), allow for “inside out tracking”, which allows for essentially limitless tracking. Run onto a football field and your play space is now 50 meters wide … minimum. This introduction of interaction mechanisms allows for new avenues of choice and experience. Experiences within VR seem to connect to some area of the brain previously untapped, with some experiences being reported as “too immersive”. People scream as they believe they fall off cliffs, they fall over when being hit with a virtual object, and they vomit when seated in a virtual rollercoaster. Admittedly, the latter is more due to a disconnect between the ocular and vestibular systems, but it’s still amazing!
And finally, I want to look at the mechanic design that goes into immersing a player in a game world.
The Monomyth, or the “Heroes Journey”, is a story analysis tool that fits many of the tales constructed today. The hero has a call to adventure, which they might not understand or accept. A crisis forces them to take the role of a reluctant saviour, and with the help of a teacher/mentor, they venture forth to find/fix/do the thing. Along the way they fall into a physical/emotion/moral pit which forces them to adapt and transform. They emerge from this pit a new person, and go on to defeat/solve the bad thing, and return home, where they reflect on their personal change. As you can see, it’s a pretty vague outline, so it fits a lot of stories. But one thing is certain, and that it focuses on the trials and evolution of the protagonist.
In video games, the player is the protagonist. Therefore, the growth and trials are those of the player. Instead of reading about Odysseus and Polyphemus, the player can instead fight a one-eyed giant. Or befriend them. Or cook them blowfish. Given the open nature of choice in many games, many emergent storytelling situations can arise.
Many games have approached player progression differently. Traditionally, a level-experience token is used. The player accrues experience by defeating enemies and completing encounters, the idea being that by the time they reach a certain level, they have had to witness a certain amount of content. Thus, a high-level player is one who has seen much of a game, and can be respected as one who has progressed. A low-level character hasn’t really seen or done much, and is a noob. Games using a Dungeons and Dragons (Dungeons and Dragons, 2018) statistics calculation approach, such as Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic (Knights of the Old Republic, 2018), use this often, as do Massively Multiplayer Online games such as World of Warcraft, or Aion: Tower of Eternity (Aion, 2018).
Some games use the mechanics to progress the player. In Portal (Portal, 2018) and Portal 2, the player can only progress through the story as they learn the tricks of the various puzzles that they are presented. And excellent example of “teaching the player”, the player is initially shown how to simple make a portal. They are shown that they can move through it, and that it can only go on certain surfaces. Then, this knowledge is incremented. Objects can move through portals. Objects can press buttons. Buttons can open doors. Doors can have goo. Goo can make more portals. Or bounce. Or slide. The player is shown, and taught, more and more, and they progress as a real human being in their problem solving ability and in a highly valued skill: the ability to play Portal 2.
In case you missed it in my rambling, here it is again. Video Games are an exceptional tool to embroil people in worlds, stories and puzzles, such has never been seen before. Video games teach practical skills such as survival and problem solving, and ephemeral skills such as compassion, and loyalty.
They’re pretty damn cool.
Arts, E. (2018). Dragon Age. Retrieved from https://www.ea.com/games/dragon-age/dragon-age-inquisition
Arts, E. (2018). Mass Effect Official Website. Retrieved from https://www.masseffect.com/
Bethesda LLC. (2018). Fallout [Windows]. https://store.steampowered.com/app/38400/Fallout_A_Post_Nuclear_Role_Playing_Game/.
Bethesda LLC. (2018). Fallout 4 [PC / Console]. https://fallout.bethesda.net/.
BioWare. (2018). Knights of the Old Republic [Windows]. https://store.steampowered.com/app/32370/STAR_WARS__Knights_of_the_Old_Republic/.
Blizzard Entertainment. (2018). World of Warcraft [Windows].
Naughty Dog LLC. (2018). Jak 3 [PlayStation]. https://www.playstation.com/en-us/games/jak-3-ps4/.
NCSoft. (2018). Aion [Windows]. https://www.aiononline.com/.
Spark Unlimited. (2018). Legendary [Windows]. https://store.steampowered.com/app/16730/Legendary/.
Tetris Holding. (2018). Tetris [Windows HTML]. https://tetris.com/play-tetris.
THQ Nordic. (2018). Elex [Windows]. https://elexgame.com/.
Treyarch Entertainment. (2018). Call of Duty [Windows/Console]. https://www.callofduty.com/au/en/.
VIVE Focus. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.vive.com/cn/product/vive-focus-en/
Windows Mixed Reality headsets. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/store/collections/vrandmixedrealityheadsets
Wizards of the East Coast. (2018). Dungeons and Dragons [Tabletop]. http://dnd.wizards.com/.
Valve Entertainment. (2018). Portal [PC, Windows] https://store.steampowered.com/app/400/Portal/
Hi guys! The latest part of my blog, focusing on how game development can be used to affect an emotion in the player. The emotion in question? Enjoyment.
You may notice that I am skipping from Week 3-4 to Week 8-9. The inner weeks are on their way, I am simply a bit behind on my class work. It will be caught up on!
Enjoy the blog :)
Eliciting Enjoyment In The Audience
The Ekman Atlas of Emotions (Ekman, 2018) is the result of nearly 150 scientists who study emotion, coming together to share their knowledge. This study concludes that there are five (5) distinct emotions at a minimum: Anger, Fear, Disgust, Sadness and Happiness. Today, I want to look at how Happiness, or Enjoyment (as I will be referring to it), affects and is affected by the discipline of Game Development.
The Atlas of Emotion breaks emotions up in to three key areas: trigger, experience and response. What causes the emotion, how does this emotion present, and what are we likely to do in reaction? Enjoyment experiences are then broken down into a further twelve (12) sections, detailing exactly the type of experience, and its intensity. For example, we have a “sensory pleasure” response. This is defined as “Enjoyment derived through one of the five physical senses: sight, sound, touch, taste and smell.”, and has a low to medium intensity attributed to it. An example of this within game development may be simple aesthetic beauty (eyesight), or haptic feedback (touch).
Each of these 12 sections vary in intensity, none of a particular value but rather falling into range. For the purposes of description, I will be rating intensity on a 0-10 scale, 0 being not affective and 10 being total ecstasy. Given we are working with a range, you will thus often see a min-max format (e.g. 2-4).
Enjoyment is an emotion that is the traditional goal of game development. From our earliest ages, we play tag, chasey, tree climbing, swimming. We hop between cracks of bricks and from cushion to cushion so as not to perish in the lava of our loungerooms. With the advent of the video game development industry we experience the wonder of world exploration, the joy of fiero and sensory stimulation more than ever before. This enjoyment includes many of the 12 sections, however the key areas I wish to focus on are:
But how exactly does Enjoyment tie into the games industry? For the sake of a tighter focus, I will constrain myself to video game design, and not the wealth of history and information contained within the physical mediums.
The first computer game was made in 1958 by Physicist William Higinbotham, using software co-opted from a missile trajectory system, and was named “Tennis for Two” ("October 1958: Physicist Invents First Video Game", 2018). The players had a dial and a button. The dial controlled angle, and the button hit the ball. The players had to time their shot and angle to make it over the net.
This game was remarkably simple, with two lines to represent net and ground, and a circle to represent the ball. However, the movement of the ball was smooth and continuous, and the game created a sense of Sensory Pleasure. Given that this game was shown off at a technical exhibit, Higinbotham attributed its popularity to the fact that “the other exhibits were so dull”. However, in interacting with this medium in such as unique and innovative way, all participants of this exhibit experienced a sense of Wonder in its use. And this game was not easy. A mistimed or malaligned shot would cause a fail state, so there was also a sense of Fiero in the game.
This represented the beginning of the game development industry, however as time has passed and technology has evolved, games have found more and more avenues to express themselves. Games are now used for education, storytelling and art, inspiring more and more varied emotions in the player.
Let us take the Witcher III: Wild Hunt for example. Widely lauded for being one of the greatest storytelling experiences of all time, the player is continuously in a state of Wonder. The world is huge, and there are hundreds of NPC’s to interact with, whether it is just a quick word or hour-long quest. The game looks at several philosophical statements as its core, the foremost being “Slaying monsters”. “Slaying Monsters” was the title of the pre-release promotional trailer, where Geralt, the protagonist, comes upon a set of men assaulting a woman. He has dealing with these men, and begins to ride away, but upon turning back he is asked “What are you doing?”, to which he replies “Slaying monsters”. Here the developers look at the comparison of the basest human natures to that of a traditional monster (slimy skin, big teeth and all). This message goes beyond what was every portrayed in traditional games, and perhaps what was even possible to portray.
The game industry approaches the creation of enjoyment in various ways, but a widely known theory known as “Flow Theory” forms a large centrepoint for many related decisions. “Flow” is defined as “the state of concentration and engagement that can be achieved when completing a task that challenges one's skills” ("Flow Theory & Works", 2018) and this theory was proposed by 1950’s Slavic Psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. Flow exists when the challenge presented to a person is equal to their skill. Both challenge and skill must be above a certain threshold to avoid apathy however.
Csikszentmihalyi links Flow directly to enjoyment and happiness, not only instantaneous, but long lasting, as the flow-ee is often “creating high quality works” or “improving skills leading to mastery”.
This theory has been central to game development for many years now, with developers striving to modulate game difficulty to match player skill. A common example of a games use of Flow can be seen in Tetris. In the beginning of Tetris, the user feels apathy or boredom. However, the game scales continuously, with the challenge rising per line deployed. Thus, the challenge rises to meet player skill, and the player often ends in a state of flow.
Another notable, if not ethical, mechanic that is often used in game development in the pursuit of enjoyment is the Skinner Box, or Operant Conditioning. “Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence” (Skinner, 1938). Skinner goes on to link positive rewards with continued behaviour, and negative rewards to negative behaviour. This is prevalent in our lives, from early childhood behaviour reinforcement to our adaptation to new environments in adult life. It is also highly prevalent in game development.
At the most basic level, game development uses skinner box tactics to make the player feel better. “You passed a level!”, “You got gold!”, “You did the thing we wanted you to do!”. The purpose of this is twofold. First, the developer can lead the player down the paths they want them to go in the game using only reward tactics. Reward a player for turning left at a maze 100 times, and they will turn more left than right. The second is that once positive stimuli has been repeated within the games context for a sufficient amount and time, the player will begin to associate the experience of playing the game with pleasure, at a subconscious level at least. This will lead them to continue playing the game, increasing retention rates.
But while subconsciously enjoying, often the player will consciously dislike the game. For example, Candy Crush. Candy Crush uses Continuous Reinforcement, “…reinforced every time a specific behaviour occurs” ("B.F. Skinner | Operant Conditioning", 2018) to reward the player whenever they complete a level, or make a match. This has lead to a high retention rate for the game. However, due to a consistent theme and challenge, the game often becomes boring after a certain time. At this point the player ends up in a conflict of the two mindsets. The first: I should stop playing, as I am not enjoying myself any more. This is the uppermost thought, the conscious thought. The second: I should continue playing to receive rewards. This is the lower thought, the subconscious. This conflict often leads to players playing for much longer than they wished, and then associating the game with a negative experience.
Finally, one of the most common techniques in game development, and a subset of Operant Conditioning theory, is Token Economy. A Token Economy is a secondary reward type that rewards the player with small elements of faux currency. This currency may then be exchanged later for a primary reward. Within game development, it is common to have a currency system, (traditionally gold, although often something else) that may be used to purchase goods and services within the game. However, with the advent of microtransactions in the modern game, the game economy now often encompasses 2-3 currencies.
B.F. Skinner | Operant Conditioning. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
Ekman, P. (2018). The Ekmans' Atlas of Emotion. Retrieved from http://atlasofemotions.org/#states/enjoyment
Flow Theory & Works. (2018). Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/lesson/mihaly-csikszentmihalyi-flow-theory-works.html
October 1958: Physicist Invents First Video Game. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200810/physicshistory.cfm
To further elaborate on Part A's comments, every week will come in a Part A and Part B format. A is a response to a very specific question, whilst B tells me to analyse something and report in my own words. This week? Are Games Art?
Are Games Art?
Art is defined by the Oxford Dictionary as “The expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual form such as a painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power” ("Art", 2018). Now, this definition is fine to be going on with, however I would like to note my distaste of the “visual” exclusivity inserted here, as I personally believe literature and music to be innate elements of art. I will be examining the inclusion of games within the artistic genre with this in mind.
It is my opinion that games are works of art, and that this is clearest seen when looking at games as a sum of their parts. Each game contains a myriad of other art forms. Visual elements, such as texturing, architecture and sculpting. Auditory elements such as music, audio-scapes, SFX. Literature in the form of lore, storytelling and poetry. And the viewer that considers even a single one of these facets to be art, must concede that games therefore have an artistic element. And it is not only the inclusion of these facets, but the way in which they are combined. Game design does not look at music separately from the game, but as an integral part, to be considered beside the visual theme and game genre. Music often fluctuates dynamically as game situations change, with fast paced, bass focused tunes for thrill, and floaty, dreamy music for exploration.
But why are games made? The answer to this question bares striking similarity to the answer of why art is made. For profit. For education. To create emotion, and to create meaning. To escape reality, and to enforce our opinions about elements of it. Furthermore, it may be said that a purpose of art is to communicate with an audience, to share ideas or argue concepts. We see examples of this within the gaming sector with the political concepts raised in the Far Cry ("Far Cry 5", 2018) series, and the exploration of character mannerisms in Thomas Was Alone (Thomas Was Alone, 2018).
Roger Ebert writes “The divide is between the narratologists and ludologists.” (Ebert, 2011) Narratologists focus on the storytelling aspects of gaming, comparing them to the traditional artforms of canvas, authoring and cinema. Ludologists focus upon the gameplay elements, finding meaning within mechanics and systems.
Within both of these viewpoints there are great arguments to be made for gamings artistic integrity. Narratologists may look at games such as the Witcher (The Witcher, 2018) series, a set of action role-playing games centred around Andrzej Sapkowski’s books. Widely acclaimed for being one of the most immersive story telling games made, this game immerses the player in music, beautiful landscapes and character development on an unparalled level.
This may be contrasted to Valve Games Portal and Portal 2 (Portal, 2018). A puzzle game set in a science laboratory, this game tasks the player to progress through increasingly harder challenges using only a simple portal mechanic. This game is a masterpiece due to its ability to provide atmosphere and flow using only the most basic of tools. An environment with whitewashed walls. Some splashed liquid, a cube and a disembodied voice. Using these, Portal has created a game lauded as one of the greatest emotional adventures created.
Harking back to Oxfords definition, they state that “emotional power” is a key component of an artpiece. Looking at the pieces I have presented, games that cause glory, suffering, rage and elation, I can find no other classification for games, other than as art.
Finally, I wish to look at the practical applications of art. A graffiti artist, Banksy, is known for making stark political and sociological statements using his artwork. He has become known as one of the greatest social critics of this age. An example of this was the literal “defacing” of a bust depicting a cardinal, where Banksy removed the face from the bust, and replaced it with coloured tiles meant to represent a pixelated face replacement ("banksy: cardinal sin", 2018). This was said to be in commentary to the Church’s continual child abuse scandals, and the little to non-existent punishment for said infractions.
Where we to look for an artist such as this within games, I would say to look no further than auteur Hideo Kojima. Designer and producer for the Metal Gear franchise, almost all of Kojima’s games have had a socio-political comment, largely focused on military decisions. The most recent example of this was within Metal Gear Solid V (Metal Gear Solid V: Phantom Pain, 2018). A 3rd person shooter, you play as the leader of a mercenary company in the middle of storyline so complex that no one really understands it. Within this game, the player may build up their base, adding defences and weapons to the various agents within it. Toward the end game, the player has the option to purchase/build nuclear armaments, as a way to dissuade attack. A “Nuclear Deterrent”. Kojima programmed into this game an achievement, received only when all players have deactivated their nuclear arms. Kojima’s purpose here was to provide evidence of possibility. If we can do it within a game, it may happen within real life.
I thus conclude once more that video games are art. I would like to hear any comments or counterarguments, a good debate is a lively debate!
Im back with a new set of study blogs :) These ones will be focusing on Critical Inquiry, the title of the unit. I hope you enjoy, with this blog, and blog post B, looking at definitions of popular culture, and the culture industry!
A Critical Analysis of the "Banksy Opening" to the 2010 Simpsons Episode
“The culture industry”. A term coined by critical theorists of the Frankfurt School, such as Adorno and Horkheimer, which refers to the mass production of art and culture for the purpose of capitalism. They theorise that the production of culture is standardized, that “Films, radios and magazines make up a system that is uniform as a whole and in every part” (Adorno & Horkheimer, 1993), and that this is thrust upon the consumer as “the man with leisure has to accept what cultural manufacturers offer him”.
The result of this, the cultural product, is popular industry. An industry filled with deviations and reflections upon “popular” products. John Story theorises that popular culture is culture that:
37 seconds into the sequence, we see a room filled with identical workers, greyscaled, producing iterations upon the lounge room scene from earlier in the video. The room has militaristic guards, meshed windows and cracked and broken walls. The overall impression given is of dank oppression, with the “Simpsons” art standing in stark relief.
There are two areas I wish to address in relation to this scene; the first looks at the caricatures in this scene as a single entity, without individualism working to create a commercial product, the second looks at them as separate entities, all highly influenced by a singular product and seeking to emulate it for personal gain.
In the first, we see an assembly line of drones, all working on minute pieces of the presented whole. We are influenced by the greyscale appearance of the workers to view them as dull, without life. I extend this meaning to “without inspiration, or creativity”. We are shown the production of a product made without meaning excepting that derived from monetary gain.
In the second, we can look on the workers as representative of different agents within popular culture. With “The Simpsons” being presented as a standard of successful culture (within the monetary context, at the very least), we see the room as derivative creators, struggling to achieve success by creating variations upon the formulae that “The Simpsons” has presented.
Before I explore further, I would also like to point out Banksy’s use of the Asian stereotype as the workers. Due to overpopulation, Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, China and India have developed stereotypes of countries driven by industrial techniques such as mass population assembly lines. A good example of this is the “50 Cent Army”. These were a collection of Chinese children employed by Chinese political parties to post propaganda online supporting the various agendas. Each child was paid 50c per post for this task. This technique was only viable due to the sheer number of workers available for the task.
Anthony Fung explores the effect of the labour intensive Asian workforce on the culture industry, stating that “… it is a strategy for big transnational companies to search for the cheapest locations to ‘Manufacture’ cultural products using low cost” (Fung, 2016). I believe that in this section, Banksy is attempting to bring to light the poor conditions many of these workers are subjected to.
Further into the sequence, we see the produced slides being taken and dipped in toxic liquid. Near the toxic liquid are piles of bones, and the liquid is obviously handled without care, as many barrels are leaking. This could be symbolic of a few things, such as the integration of “toxic” ideas into mainstream media (homophobia, sexism/male gaze, racism, discrimination, etc), or even a comment on the work conditions that members of the creative industries are subjected to in order to meet deadlines and goals within a commercial context. An example of this within the game development industry is “crunch culture”. Recognised as a problem facing a large portion of the industry, it has become commonplace for a game developer to be forced to work large portions of unpaid overtime in order to meet deadlines set by the company. A recent example of this was the closure of TellTale Games studio. This studio forced employees into “20 hours a day, up to 100 hours a week” (Farokhmanesh, 2018) consistently, with the pervasive threat of being let go if they refused. This is only a single example of the many toxic elements that creative practitioner work through.
Finally, the camera moves down a hole, through a series of underground shafts. Pervasive through these shafts is evidence of merchandise manufacture, culminating in animals being shredded for stuffed toys on the bottom floor. Adorono and Horkheimer portray culture as something that is thrust upon the people for passive consumption. “The man with leisure has to accept what the culture manufacturers offers him”. This is evident in this production. There is Simpsons music, Simpsons plush toys, Simpsons blankets and Simpsons house decorations. All in an effort to surround the consumer, to overwhelm them, within the sea of this product.
I do not believe this to be wholly true however. With the advent of the Information Age, society began to both create and consume. They learn the tenets and formulae of artistic creation, and dissect the pieces that are provided. Thus does the culture industry lose an element of its control, as the public begins to understand the tools of manipulation. Yes, trends will still occur, but when everyone may create, not everyone will blindly follow the popular movement. Many will instead experiment will areas hitherto discarded or given little importance. The regeneration of the Virtual Reality trend was seen as foolhardy until its success. The Battle Royale genre was only seen in “indie” games and mods such as H1Z1 (H1Z1, 2018) until the success of PUBG (PLAYERUNKNOWN: BATTLEGROUNDS, 2016), leading to world wide phenomenon Fortnite(Fortnite, 2018). These events provide proof that the individual may still diverge from the influences of mass culture. It would have been difficult for Adorno and Horkheimer to forsee this reality without knowledge of future events, such as the advent of the internet, its social trends, and the tools and information it would provide to anyone with a handheld device.
20th Century Fox. (2010). Simpsons [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DX1iplQQJTo
Adorno, T., & Horkheimer, M. (1993). The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception.
Daybreak Game Company. (2018). H1Z1 [Windows/PSOS].
Epic Games. (2018). Fortnite [Windows/Mobile/Xbox/PS4].
Farokhmanesh, M. (2018). Toxic management cost an award-winning game studio its best developers [Blog]. Retrieved from https://www.theverge.com/2018/3/20/17130056/telltale-games-developer-layoffs-toxic-video-game-industry
Fung, A. (2016). Precarious Creativity: Global Media, Local Labor (p. 15 Redefining Creative Labor: East Asian Comparisons). California: University of California Press.
PUBG Corporation. (2016). PLAYERUNKNOWN:BATTLEGROUNDS [Windows/XBOXONE].
Story, J. (2014). What is Popular Culture?. Cultural Theory And Popular Culture: An Introduction.